Increasingly, the Construction Industry is being dramatically impacted globally by internal and external forces. These influences range from acute labor and skill shortages, demographic and urbanization shifts, as well as, the Industry’s conversion from analog-based processes to digital workflows. This presentation will overview ten significant trends which are uniquely affecting the Construction Industry, creating both new challenges and opportunities, while transforming the Construction Industry.
Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) can cause significant damage to concrete structures including bridges, roadways, airport runways, and nuclear power plants. When reactive aggregates are included in a mix, the presence of moisture initiates a reaction between the alkaline cement paste and reactive amorphous silica. The result is a gel that continues to dilate, which may cause cracks in the concrete mass. A research program was undertaken at the University of Toronto to investigate the effects of ASR on large-scale and small-scale concrete specimens. Several specimens were constructed using reactive (ASR) concrete and non-reactive (regular) concrete, and their short-term and long-term structural and mechanical behavior were compared. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of the research program, will offer best practices to minimize the risk of ASR in concrete during placement, and will propose several strategies for repair of structures that have been degraded due to ASR.
The application of nondestructive testing and evaluation for detecting existing defects and anomalies in concrete structures will be presented. Proper inspection and assessment is an integral part of a successful repair and rehabilitation. A well-defined inspection will help asset owners and their consultants in identifying the location and extent of existing defects, and enabling them in selecting proper repair materials and optimizing the area that needs rehabilitation. Moreover, NDT methods can help identify potential defects that are not visible to the naked eye, such as early-stage delamination, corrosion, and other durability related issues. In this presentation, several cases in Canada will be demonstrated, where the results of nondestructive testing and evaluation have been used to help consultants and contractors with cost-effective and reliable repair planning. Applications of ground penetrating radar, ultrasonic pulse echo tomography, seismic tomography, will be discussed.
Arrowhead Stadium originally opened in 1972 and is known to be the home to the Super Bowl Champions Kansas City Chiefs. Renovations of the stadium completed in 2010 included adding luxury suites on the club level of the stadium. This meant that the upper seating bowl not only had to seat more than 34,000 Chief fans but also act as a "roof" for the new luxury suites. The upper seating bowl comprises L-shaped precast concrete seating risers spanning from cast-in-place concrete raker beams and is divided by sixteen expansion joints. In 2018, the planning for the upper seating bowl waterproofing program began. The goal for the repair project was to implement waterproofing upgrades to protect the concrete for the next 10 years. To add to the challenge of a large-scale waterproofing and structural repair project, the construction efforts had to include coordination with simultaneous seat replacement to be completed in a single off-season.
This presentation aims at providing clear and down to earth definitions of what Post-Tensioning systems are, the different repair strategies related to these systems, and critical factors to be accounted for during the design and execution of any intervention on a Post-Tensioning slab.
This presentation looks at buildings that are new or being rehabilitated and the impact on making buildings more energy efficient. Starting with the 2012 IBC, and specifically the 2012 IECC portion of the building code and newer versions, the presentation will look at three aspects of the building envelope: Water Resistance, Air Leakage, and Moisture Transmission. It will then compare to identical buildings, the first built in 2000 and the second constructed in 2020. Illustrations and calculations will show how controlling air leakage can have an enormous impact on the service life of the structure, initial cost of construction, and on-going operations. Lastly, the presentation will look at how incorporating simple additions during the repair/rehabilitation process can have a positive impact on the environment as well as the building owner and the building’s constituents.
Arlington Memorial Bridge is a reinforced concrete spandrel arch bridge that connects Washington, DC and Virginia across the Potomac River. After over 85 years in service, the bridge started exhibiting signs of deterioration, including reinforcement corrosion. As part of a major rehabilitation effort to extend the bridge’s service life, targeted cathodic protection (CP) systems were installed in the arch cross-walls, floors, and under arches to mitigate and prevent corrosion. The implemented CP system consisted of galvanic and two-stage anodes to mitigate corrosion. Galvanic anodes were installed in the repair areas to prevent the ring anode affect and ensure a durable concrete repair. The two-stage anodes were installed in areas of concrete which were actively corroding without signs of concrete deterioration.
What happens when a building owner calls with leaks into a building they just finished? After verifying whether they want to file a lawsuit or not, the course of action is important. An investigation and preliminary testing are typically recommended to understand the original design and the quality and consistency of the construction. Design of remedial repairs and a pilot repair program followed by retesting to confirm results. How extensive are the failures and how invasive do the repairs need to be? Costs? What materials were used and were they compatible? Public perception and developer/owner reputation are important. The occupants have just moved in. Higher expectation of successful repairs. Can we involve the original design and construction team? These are just a few of the issues that need to be faced early in this process. One must communicate often and clearly with the owner and rest of the project team in order to manage expectations, costs and construction quality control.
Concrete placement and finishing defects raised by a member of the project team may indicate a greater (unobserved) structural concern, a long-term durability issue, or simply an aesthetic problem. Concrete defects can delay the project schedule, require costly investigation fees, and necessitate removal and replacement. This presentation is intended to tackle concrete placement and finishing defects faced by the concrete construction industry. Topics will include: cold joints, delaminations, dusting, honeycombing, form leakage, plastic shrinkage cracking, floor flatness/levelness, in addition to others. This presentation will discuss the causes of these concrete defects, techniques for evaluating various defects, and approaches for mitigating these problems. Attendees will be introduced to various evaluation methods (e.g., impact-echo, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ground penetrating radar, concrete coring, petrographic examination, etc.) and when their use is appropriate.
High Traffic Commercial/Light Industrial applications including light manufacturing, warehouse/big-box stores and high traffic retail applications present their own unique challenges in concrete repair. This presentation will review concrete repair options that a focused on those application that may require both fast application/turnaround time and strength/use durability for forklifts and trucks. High Traffic Commercial/Light Industrial applications including light manufacturing, warehouse/big-box stores and high traffic retail applications present their own unique challenges in concrete repair. This presentation will review concrete repair options that a focused on those application that may require both fast application/turnaround time and strength/use durability for forklifts and trucks. While there are many option for quick repair that can be open to use in a matter of hours, it is important to acknowledge he potential limitations of these options over the long term.
From the days of boiled Linseed oil, to the discovery of membrane forming cures, to the development of carbon dioxide injection; curing has evolved to accommodate the demands of the construction industry. This presentation will look back at the early standards developed by ASTM, contrasting them to the standards that are currently under consideration. There are many ways to cure concrete, this presentation will review the various product options framed in the context of weather. Lastly, the presentation will explore the various methods discussing the features and benefits of the common curing practices of today.
Dallas City Hall and Plaza are recognized by many due to the opening scenes of Dallas, the television show. What is less known is that the structure is a significant early example of bonded post-tensioned concrete which was utilized throughout the superstructure and two-story parking garage constructed beneath the plaza. Opened in 1977, the parking garage is a two-way bonded post-tensioned concrete slab with unreinforced drop panels supported by flared circular concrete columns. The garage covers two city blocks, extends under two adjacent multi-lane streets, and supports mature landscaping, pool, fountain, and up to 11’-0” of soil. In 2017, several square feet of a drop panel fell from the structure and subsequent observations found multiple locations of drop panel and column capital failures. A structural investigation including destructive and non-destructive testing, and analysis of the existing structure was undertaken to determine the cause of the failures.
Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Systems (aka UAVs aka Drones) continues to be a hot topic for engineers and designers. Within the past 10 years, we have seen technology change how we live, work, play and learn. These advances in technology have enabled humans to be more efficient as well as socially and environmentally conscious and connected. Advances in engineering technology and efficiency have expanded structural engineer’s roles in inspection services. This presentation will highlight drone utilization for exterior surveys and inspection, impact on the built environment, and how drones will continue to influence in the future. This includes areas that are too dangerous for humans or structures where rigging can be difficult or impossible as well as the cost benefits of using a drone. The presentation will also delve into the effectiveness and appropriate applications of drone usage, specifically for hands-on applications.
The Avalon Mall parking facility is a four level above grade structure, consisting of three suspended parking levels (approximately 7,750sq.m. each) and one on-grade parking level connected to the existing mall with a new pedestrian bridge. RJC was the structural engineer of record. During construction of the parking structure extensive cracking of the suspended parking garage slabs was noted at two of the 24 pours. RJC undertook a visual assessment of the parking slabs in question to determine the extent of the noted cracking and determined over 750lin.m. of cracks ranging in size from 0.5mm to 6.5mm in width. Following the visual assessment destructive testing of the concrete was undertaken to determine its in-situ properties as well as to understand the full extent of the cracking.
A follow-on presentation to the discussion of our evaluation of over 1500 tire and lube facilities across the United States that prescribed immediate repairs where necessary, reinforcement where deterioration reduced capacity below acceptable levels and coatings necessary to protect structural steel and structural concrete (i.e. our 2019 Philadelphia presentation). This will be an in-depth presentation of how repairs were specified for (3) specific types of structures. The (3) structure types are exposed structural concrete, composite metal deck and fully reinforced form deck slabs all supported by steel structures and reinforced concrete walls. Presentation will include before, during and completion photos of each project discussed. Again, touch on the evaluation processes to include demand to capacity ratios review, evaluation system and inspection form, triggers to determine when shoring is necessary, calculation of capacities per AISC 360, ACI 318, ACI 562 and local building codes.
Two projects will be explored in this presentation. The first is a concrete structure which for 20 years was exposed to extreme heat. The second is a structure which was exposed to extreme vibrations. Both these structures were integral parts of manufacturing processes and required limited down time to repair. The questions needing to be answered were: what is the condition of the existing concrete and what are the repair options for these structures. We turned to non-destructive techniques to evaluate these structures. Non-destructive techniques can provide insight into structures when accompanied by experienced engineers and petrographic analysis. Repair options were provided at the end of our evaluation leading to reduced down time and well-planned repairs.
The presentation, through case studies, talks about emergency response services for structural issues encountered during construction of new design projects. Among other examples is an eleven story precast parking structure. The contractor observed significant diagonal faulted cracking of L-beams (supporting double-tee sections) near bearing locations, few days after pouring topping slab. In addition, inverted-tee girders were observed to be supported on cracked corbels at other locations. A quick turn around was required to mitigate any immediate life safety hazard posed by the structural distresses and buy time for thorough investigation, non-destructive testing, analyses, and repair design. Another example is a seven story precast parking structure. The structure was under construction and reportedly erected out of plumb. Poor concrete placing practices and poor weld detailing led to widespread cracking in multiple structural elements throughout the structure...
he appeal of a post-pandemic return to normalcy is undeniable. Everyone is ready to leave the days of mask wearing and Zoom meetings behind and to return to the days of water cooler gatherings and all-staff meetings. However, even as we (hopefully) move past the pandemic, it is critical for companies to not lose sight of what they accomplished despite the pandemic. Companies across the world innovated more in one year than they had in the previous twenty years to keep business alive. The question we must now address is: how do we maintain those initiatives and innovative ways of working that allowed us to succeed throughout COVID-19 despite the temptation to return to “business as usual”?
In this session, Dr. Hataway will provide essential strategies to help you and your company grow your competitive edge in a post-pandemic world.
Join us for an exciting hour showcasing new initiatives of ICRI; innovations at the chapter level; and a high energy panel discussion exploring lessons from the pandemic that are re-shaping our industry.
This video will discuss how the requirements of ACI 562-16 are used in the evaluation and repair of parking structures. It will take participants through a representative garage project, utilizing Design Example 1 from the Guide to the Use of ACI 562 as the basis. Evaluation and design considerations will be discussed relative to the Repair Code as well as QA/QC and the Engineers' Role during construction.
The iconic construction hard hat, a symbol of pride for the construction worker, has changed very little in 50 years. Developments in the understanding of the causes and prevention of debilitating and often fatal head injuries is leading to a revolutionary change in the way we protect our people from head injuries on the jobsite. The classic hard hat is about to change forever. This presentation will focus on new technology available today to minimize the effects of falls and impacts to the head of the worker. We will also focus on new technologies, already in development, that can further provide protection from head injuries. Industry requirements (OSHA, ANSI) will be reviewed, and the application of worldwide standards (EN) will be discussed and applied to new helmet development and implementation.
This presentation will look at how technology is used to perform condition assessments at height and in places with difficult access utilizing a virtual toolbox that includes a wide range of instruments and tools for non-destructive evaluation and testing, and a fleet of drones, each of which has a different use. The presentation will discuss how to use drones and tools at height; how the industry is using drones in new ways; and how some municipalities are changing policies to adapt, especially with regard to facade inspections.
The case-histories based presentation will focus on the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to detect flaws and damage in concrete construction. Case histories will be presented for detection and mapping of flaws and damage in concrete such as cracking, delamination, honeycomb, void, corrosion, fire damage, alkali-silica reaction and low strength concrete. The case histories for the concrete structures are anticipated to include parking structures, bridges, buildings and dams. NDE methods will include sonic/ultrasonic, infrared thermography, radar and corrosion technologies where the results in many cases were confirmed by coring. The use of some of the NDE methods for QA of concrete repairs such as epoxy injection and patching will also be discussed.
On August 9, 2019, Tyson Foods' Holcomb, Kansas beef plant experienced the first large fire in the meat processing industry in nearly 20 years. The long-burning fire precipitated the collapse of a portion of the high roof over the mechanical mezzanine, which housed equipment for numerous critical plant processes. This took portions of the plant, the second largest in the United States, out of operation for months. The pressures of substantial business interruption costs, as well as the market consequences for cattle feeders from the Southern Plains region, necessitated a rapid response. This presentation highlights the investigation into the extent of damage to precast members, including visual inspection, nondestructive and laboratory evaluations, testing, simulation, and analyses. Based on this investigation, members were identified for repair or removal and replacement.
This 60-minute session will be comprised of a 10-15 minute introduction to ACI 562, followed by a 45-minute discussion by a moderated panel of various experienced stakeholders in the concrete repair industry, including Specifiers, Contractors, Manufacturer/Distributors, and Owners.
The Ituango dam is an embankment dam that is currently under construction on the Cauca River in Colombia. The largest hydroelectric power plant in Colombia’s history. Three large diversion tunnels used to divert the water from the river around the construction site during construction collapsed as a result of heavy rainfalls. The nearly completed pump house had to be flooded to accommodate premature water build-up in the reservoir. These tunnels would need to be permanently sealed. “Pre-stoppers” would need to be constructed in place to serve as bulk heads between which would ultimately be excavated and back-filled with concrete to permanently seal the tunnels. Additional to standard anti-washout properties, the grout had to withstand swiftly flowing water and exhibit an extended working time at temperatures above 32 degrees C. A custom grout was developed for this application. In the end, hundreds of grout micropiles were tremied, consuming more than 1,650 tons of grout, to produce...
Post-tensioned concrete is a strong and durable material for construction of exposed parking structures. These types of structures are also fire resistant, but they can be damaged depending upon the severity of the fire. The structure in this presentation suffered significant fire damage early in its construction. The presentation will cover the discovery and testing methods used to determine the extent of fire damage, and the design of the repairs that were instituted to restore strength and allow construction to continue.
In new construction, cracks can appear for variety of reasons: curing, temperature deviation, pressure from adjacent conditions, or settlement. This presentation will outline various types of cracking, how to plan to avoid them, and how to address them after concrete has been placed.
Due to improper design or implementation sometimes Part of the New projects are re-executed or repaired. Islamabad - Rawalpindi BRTS (Bus Rapid transit System) Consisted of 20 Stations Covering around 23 km path connecting twin cities. Each station Roof Consisted of ACP Sheets Fixed on Aluminum Frame with Steel supports. The joints of ACP sheets were filled by Silicon but improper materiel and workmanship caused leakage in joints. Total length of joints was over 400,000 RFT. Leakage was invariably from almost every area.
Historic 19th and 20th century buildings are currently facing the necessity of meeting contemporary needs such as adaptive re-use, energy efficiency, stability, and durability. The characteristics of architecture of these periods (i.e., material, design, details, maintenance, and functionality) increasingly make it challenging to maintain authenticity while incorporating new uses. Various strategies of technical interventions can be employed to achieve good results. This presentation will cover the case study of abandoned historic hospital pavilions from the early 20th century which are being converted into a high-end residential complex. The buildings face multiple challenges related to adaptive re-use, as they will be restored and connected with new infills and a glass connector and capped with re-creation of the historic cornices.
ICRI in-person conventions consist of numerous networking opportunities. In many cases, we catch up with old friends who we have not seen in a while, and get to know new friends. Great stories abound, including how ICRI members came to be involved in the organization. Tune in to hear some of these stories in a relaxed, “sitting-at-the-bar” exchange among notable ICRI leaders.
Technology is not limited to innovative materials or equipment on a jobsite. Digital technology is changing how teams operate and is dramatically increasing efficiency and effectiveness. Cloud-based project management software allows key stakeholders to consolidate project data on to one mobile platform for easy collaboration. The entire project team, from general contractors, specialty contractors, owners, architects, engineers, conservators, and others can exchange data and documents with the tap of a screen. Communication between the field and the office is streamlined where everyone has access to real-time project details. This helps avoid duplicate entry errors and rework because teams built from an outdated drawing. In addition to drawings and details, project management software brings contracts, submittals, RFIs, billings, safety reporting, meeting minutes, photos, and financial reporting into one platform.
Shotcrete has been used widely for rehabilitation and retrofit of concrete structures. More and more large infrastructures, in particular, in the hydro power industry, is using shotcrete for major rehabilitation and retrofit. Recently, the US Army Corps of Engineers has been engaged in structural modifications to reinforced concrete draft tube exits from the turbines in the Ice Harbor Lock and Dam located on the Snake River, Washington. This presentation details the structural modification to the draft tube which was successfully completed using wet-mix shotcrete.
Since the invention and introduction of Portland cement-based, self-leveling underlayments in the U.S. in 1978, sub-floor preparation technologies, means and methods have continuously evolved. This evolution has been driven by dynamic market forces, including more manufacturers, a larger and more experienced installer base, increased adoption rates with a wider range of applications, ever-increasing project sizes and complexity, new flooring structures with more demanding requirements, the ability to handle high moisture levels with less surface preparation and fast track construction.
Presentation will discuss Vision 2020 (Development, Successes and Challenges) as well as items which still need to be completed. This portion of the presentation will be followed by an overview of the presenter's perspective on the future needs for the concrete repair industry. All attendees will be invited to participate in a workshop to develop a complete list of industry needs (consensus if possible).
Richard Miller Treatment Plant is a 240 mgd cap. potable water treatment facility located in the California area of the Cincinnati, Ohio, US. After installing an advanced ultraviolet (UV) disinfection treatment system in 2013, GCWW became the largest water utility in North America to use UV light following sand filtration and granular activated carbon. The concrete filter gallery building was originally constructed in 1907 with 26 filters, with a 14-filter addition in 1937 and 7 filters added in 1964. After over 110 years of service, the structures started showing significant signs of deterioration, most commonly concrete spalling and reinforcing steel corrosion. This case study will highlight the methods used to evaluate the structures that involved conventional methods such as sounding, crack mapping, chemical and petrographic examinations, along with technology such as Half-Cell Potential/ICOR, Impact-Echo, Ground Penetrating Radar, and UAS (Drone) services.
The general sentiment around construction and modern technology is that the industry has been slow to embrace it. While this is true of the past, the current and future construction industry is all about modern technology. Not only does technology help to make the industry safer (something that has been a struggle for a very long time), but it is helping contractors to take back control of their budgets, to make smarter choices about project planning and equipment and is, consequently, pushing the green-construction trend forward. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a summary on the current technologies being used in the construction industry with a focus on concrete and to dig even further as to how these can be applied to repair projects. It will provide case studies on how using technology to bring ambient and concrete temperature, relative humidity and strength (among other) data online can help contractors be more efficient.
After only six years of service, a 6-foot long narrow piece of concrete spalled off an exposed slab edge of a 680-foot tall high-rise in Texas, and fell 160 feet to the podium below. The spall was attributed to premature corrosion at the drip edge. The building featured approximately 9,200 feet of exposed slab edge over its height. Given the potential risk to safety and property of additional concrete spalls, the Owner requested forensic investigations, which (1) identified other areas with signs of similar distress and (2) determined the underlying problem of low reinforcement cover at the drip edge was pervasive. In response, repair options were developed to address the problem and restore intended durability. Given the building height, difficult exterior-only access, downtown environment, and post-tensioning anchors along the slab edge, the repair design and construction both had unique challenges to consider and overcome.
This update includes fall protection requirements for low slope roofs, façade access, and ladders as well as a timeline for compliance. This seminar not only addresses the recent 2017 updates to 29 CFR Part 1910 General Industry, but is an overview of all fall protection standards found in both Part 1910 for General Industry and Part 1926 Construction. The components of a Comprehensive Managed Fall Protection Program are also presented as well as specific requirements for the fall protection options available. Because many in the industry either do not understand the standards, are unaware of the available OSHA interpretations, or prefer not to spend money training their employees, misinformation is being spread. This seminar provides the truth about the required implementation of the updated fall protection standards and the standards that remain in place.
This webinar will discuss the keys to proper surface preparation including establishing the appropriate level of surface profile, evaluating the concrete substrate and the material being installed to determine the correct level of preparation as well as the correct methods and tools to achieve that level.
The prestressed beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans were fabricated in about 1960 (west bound lane) and 1970 (east bound lane). The spans are 50-ft and 75-ft, respectively. The brackish water environment caused corrosion and failure of the bottom strands and deterioration and spalling of the cover concrete in many beams. A project in 2018 strengthened 30 of the more deteriorated beams as an alternative to posting or replacing the bridges. Carbon fiber composite wrap (CFCW) and external post-tensioning (PT) were used to strengthen the beams. Prior to construction, a PT mockup was done with one 50-ft (flexible filler) and one 75-ft (grout) beam to demonstrate that the contractor had the materials, equipment and staff to successfully do the external PT. This presentation describes the project’s mockups and construction and the anticipated increase in strength to be obtained from application of the CFCW and external PT.
Construction errors such as the misplacement of reinforcing steel and modifications like the addition of openings traditionally required intrusive repair methods. The addition of structural steel support or enlargement of the concrete elements is often not aesthetically pleasing or practical and the cost and time impacts are onerous. FRP strengthening solutions are non-intrusive, practical, and can be implemented quickly without major impact on the other building trades. The presentation will guide the audience through the feasibility assessment of FRP strengthening and implementation of the strengthening solution. The roles of the various parties, including the Engineer of Record, the FRP Design Engineer, the General Contractor, the Structural Contractor, and the FRP Installer, will be illustrated. Photographs of completed repairs will be presented.
Dealing with water is always a challenge when constructing a new structure. Whether it is water infiltration that was expected, or water manages to circumvent pre-planned waterproofing methods, it can wreak havoc on the building and interfere with construction schedules. The term “belt and suspenders” is often used in waterproofing and there is a good reason for it. Water chooses the path of least resistance, and many times that path is not discovered until it is too late. There are many methods of water control that can be implemented before, during and after a structure is completed. This presentation will focus on water control methods for new construction that can be implemented during or after the construction process.
Repairing and extending the service life of concrete in severe environments first requires that one understands what may be considered severe why it may be considered so. This presentation will discuss the ways in which different organizations and technical committees around the world define ‘severe environments’ for concrete structures; types of deterioration mechanisms and materials-related distress that may severely and quickly deteriorate concrete, type of structures with potentially severe environments, and U.S. geographical considerations.
A significant percentage of repairs are performed during the course of constructing new structures. Once a construction anomaly or error occurs the first concerns are for life safety and schedule impact. A review of the steps necessary to successfully perform repairs and minimize impacts to the ongoing construction. Examples of challenging problems and the traditional and non-traditional solutions to these problems will be discussed.