Since the invention and introduction of Portland cement-based, self-leveling underlayments in the U.S. in 1978, sub-floor preparation technologies, means and methods have continuously evolved. This evolution has been driven by dynamic market forces, including more manufacturers, a larger and more experienced installer base, increased adoption rates with a wider range of applications, ever-increasing project sizes and complexity, new flooring structures with more demanding requirements, the ability to handle high moisture levels with less surface preparation and fast track construction.
This update includes fall protection requirements for low slope roofs, façade access, and ladders as well as a timeline for compliance. This seminar not only addresses the recent 2017 updates to 29 CFR Part 1910 General Industry, but is an overview of all fall protection standards found in both Part 1910 for General Industry and Part 1926 Construction. The components of a Comprehensive Managed Fall Protection Program are also presented as well as specific requirements for the fall protection options available. Because many in the industry either do not understand the standards, are unaware of the available OSHA interpretations, or prefer not to spend money training their employees, misinformation is being spread. This seminar provides the truth about the required implementation of the updated fall protection standards and the standards that remain in place.
Repairing and extending the service life of concrete in severe environments first requires that one understands what may be considered severe why it may be considered so. This presentation will discuss the ways in which different organizations and technical committees around the world define ‘severe environments’ for concrete structures; types of deterioration mechanisms and materials-related distress that may severely and quickly deteriorate concrete, type of structures with potentially severe environments, and U.S. geographical considerations.
The case-histories based presentation will focus on the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to detect flaws and damage in concrete construction. Case histories will be presented for detection and mapping of flaws and damage in concrete such as cracking, delamination, honeycomb, void, corrosion, fire damage, alkali-silica reaction and low strength concrete. The case histories for the concrete structures are anticipated to include parking structures, bridges, buildings and dams. NDE methods will include sonic/ultrasonic, infrared thermography, radar and corrosion technologies where the results in many cases were confirmed by coring. The use of some of the NDE methods for QA of concrete repairs such as epoxy injection and patching will also be discussed.
From the days of boiled Linseed oil, to the discovery of membrane forming cures, to the development of carbon dioxide injection; curing has evolved to accommodate the demands of the construction industry. This presentation will look back at the early standards developed by ASTM, contrasting them to the standards that are currently under consideration. There are many ways to cure concrete, this presentation will review the various product options framed in the context of weather. Lastly, the presentation will explore the various methods discussing the features and benefits of the common curing practices of today.
Two projects will be explored in this presentation. The first is a concrete structure which for 20 years was exposed to extreme heat. The second is a structure which was exposed to extreme vibrations. Both these structures were integral parts of manufacturing processes and required limited down time to repair. The questions needing to be answered were: what is the condition of the existing concrete and what are the repair options for these structures. We turned to non-destructive techniques to evaluate these structures. Non-destructive techniques can provide insight into structures when accompanied by experienced engineers and petrographic analysis. Repair options were provided at the end of our evaluation leading to reduced down time and well-planned repairs.
Shotcrete has been used widely for rehabilitation and retrofit of concrete structures. More and more large infrastructures, in particular, in the hydro power industry, is using shotcrete for major rehabilitation and retrofit. Recently, the US Army Corps of Engineers has been engaged in structural modifications to reinforced concrete draft tube exits from the turbines in the Ice Harbor Lock and Dam located on the Snake River, Washington. This presentation details the structural modification to the draft tube which was successfully completed using wet-mix shotcrete.
Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) can cause significant damage to concrete structures including bridges, roadways, airport runways, and nuclear power plants. When reactive aggregates are included in a mix, the presence of moisture initiates a reaction between the alkaline cement paste and reactive amorphous silica. The result is a gel that continues to dilate, which may cause cracks in the concrete mass. A research program was undertaken at the University of Toronto to investigate the effects of ASR on large-scale and small-scale concrete specimens. Several specimens were constructed using reactive (ASR) concrete and non-reactive (regular) concrete, and their short-term and long-term structural and mechanical behavior were compared. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of the research program, will offer best practices to minimize the risk of ASR in concrete during placement, and will propose several strategies for repair of structures that have been degraded due to ASR.
The Ituango dam is an embankment dam that is currently under construction on the Cauca River in Colombia. The largest hydroelectric power plant in Colombia’s history. Three large diversion tunnels used to divert the water from the river around the construction site during construction collapsed as a result of heavy rainfalls. The nearly completed pump house had to be flooded to accommodate premature water build-up in the reservoir. These tunnels would need to be permanently sealed. “Pre-stoppers” would need to be constructed in place to serve as bulk heads between which would ultimately be excavated and back-filled with concrete to permanently seal the tunnels. Additional to standard anti-washout properties, the grout had to withstand swiftly flowing water and exhibit an extended working time at temperatures above 32 degrees C. A custom grout was developed for this application. In the end, hundreds of grout micropiles were tremied, consuming more than 1,650 tons of grout, to produce...
Dallas City Hall and Plaza are recognized by many due to the opening scenes of Dallas, the television show. What is less known is that the structure is a significant early example of bonded post-tensioned concrete which was utilized throughout the superstructure and two-story parking garage constructed beneath the plaza. Opened in 1977, the parking garage is a two-way bonded post-tensioned concrete slab with unreinforced drop panels supported by flared circular concrete columns. The garage covers two city blocks, extends under two adjacent multi-lane streets, and supports mature landscaping, pool, fountain, and up to 11’-0” of soil. In 2017, several square feet of a drop panel fell from the structure and subsequent observations found multiple locations of drop panel and column capital failures. A structural investigation including destructive and non-destructive testing, and analysis of the existing structure was undertaken to determine the cause of the failures.