Arrowhead Stadium originally opened in 1972 and is known to be the home to the Super Bowl Champions Kansas City Chiefs. Renovations of the stadium completed in 2010 included adding luxury suites on the club level of the stadium. This meant that the upper seating bowl not only had to seat more than 34,000 Chief fans but also act as a "roof" for the new luxury suites. The upper seating bowl comprises L-shaped precast concrete seating risers spanning from cast-in-place concrete raker beams and is divided by sixteen expansion joints. In 2018, the planning for the upper seating bowl waterproofing program began. The goal for the repair project was to implement waterproofing upgrades to protect the concrete for the next 10 years. To add to the challenge of a large-scale waterproofing and structural repair project, the construction efforts had to include coordination with simultaneous seat replacement to be completed in a single off-season.
Arlington Memorial Bridge is a reinforced concrete spandrel arch bridge that connects Washington, DC and Virginia across the Potomac River. After over 85 years in service, the bridge started exhibiting signs of deterioration, including reinforcement corrosion. As part of a major rehabilitation effort to extend the bridge’s service life, targeted cathodic protection (CP) systems were installed in the arch cross-walls, floors, and under arches to mitigate and prevent corrosion. The implemented CP system consisted of galvanic and two-stage anodes to mitigate corrosion. Galvanic anodes were installed in the repair areas to prevent the ring anode affect and ensure a durable concrete repair. The two-stage anodes were installed in areas of concrete which were actively corroding without signs of concrete deterioration.
The prestressed beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans were fabricated in about 1960 (west bound lane) and 1970 (east bound lane). The spans are 50-ft and 75-ft, respectively. The brackish water environment caused corrosion and failure of the bottom strands and deterioration and spalling of the cover concrete in many beams. A project in 2018 strengthened 30 of the more deteriorated beams as an alternative to posting or replacing the bridges. Carbon fiber composite wrap (CFCW) and external post-tensioning (PT) were used to strengthen the beams. Prior to construction, a PT mockup was done with one 50-ft (flexible filler) and one 75-ft (grout) beam to demonstrate that the contractor had the materials, equipment and staff to successfully do the external PT. This presentation describes the project’s mockups and construction and the anticipated increase in strength to be obtained from application of the CFCW and external PT.
Construction errors such as the misplacement of reinforcing steel and modifications like the addition of openings traditionally required intrusive repair methods. The addition of structural steel support or enlargement of the concrete elements is often not aesthetically pleasing or practical and the cost and time impacts are onerous. FRP strengthening solutions are non-intrusive, practical, and can be implemented quickly without major impact on the other building trades. The presentation will guide the audience through the feasibility assessment of FRP strengthening and implementation of the strengthening solution. The roles of the various parties, including the Engineer of Record, the FRP Design Engineer, the General Contractor, the Structural Contractor, and the FRP Installer, will be illustrated. Photographs of completed repairs will be presented.
Dealing with water is always a challenge when constructing a new structure. Whether it is water infiltration that was expected, or water manages to circumvent pre-planned waterproofing methods, it can wreak havoc on the building and interfere with construction schedules. The term “belt and suspenders” is often used in waterproofing and there is a good reason for it. Water chooses the path of least resistance, and many times that path is not discovered until it is too late. There are many methods of water control that can be implemented before, during and after a structure is completed. This presentation will focus on water control methods for new construction that can be implemented during or after the construction process.
Repairing and extending the service life of concrete in severe environments first requires that one understands what may be considered severe why it may be considered so. This presentation will discuss the ways in which different organizations and technical committees around the world define ‘severe environments’ for concrete structures; types of deterioration mechanisms and materials-related distress that may severely and quickly deteriorate concrete, type of structures with potentially severe environments, and U.S. geographical considerations.